The immune system can be likened to a silent hero, made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, protecting people against germs and microorganisms every day. In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. But sometimes, the immune system can suffer from some serious problems. Especially when the body is old or has some diseases such as diabetes, the immune system is weakened leading to colds, long wounds …
1. What is the Immune system?
✅ The immune system is a system made up of a network of cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that helps protect the body by fighting pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc. The immune system appears throughout the body including throat tonsils, digestive system, bone marrow, skin, lymph nodes, spleen, thin mucous membranes inside the nose, throat & genitals. The structure of the immune system is like “protective layers of the body”.
✅ The immune system is quite beneficial when it works within the body’s protection range. However, sometimes the overactivity or misalignment of the immune system will have negative consequences, especially in autoimmune diseases. Instead of identifying harmful agents, this distorted immune system reacts and destroys the body’s own tissues, causing a number of conditions such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis…
2. Three layers Immune protection
2.1 Natural immunity
✅ The outer, innate, inherited protective layer: skin, secretions in the nose, throat, … This is an available layer of protection and is the first layer of protection against pathogens.
2.2 Passive immunity
✅ Passive immunity includes maternal antibodies that are passed directly to the baby during pregnancy and through colostrum. This is also the protective layer available, which immediately attacks when the pathogen crosses the natural immune barrier. This protective layer of the baby begins to decline after 6 months of age.
2.3 Active immunity
✅ Active immunity consists of antibodies made by the baby’s body when exposed to germs or antigens that are actively introduced into the body (such as vaccinations). This protective layer cannot immediately attack the pathogen because it takes time to identify the pathogen and produce the corresponding antibody. When your child is about 3-4 years old, the active immune system is completely improved.
3. The role of Immune system
- Protect the body from infection: Immune barrier of the body, including skin, sweat glands, stomach acid, intestinal motility, neutrophilic leukocytes, macrophages … will block the penetration of external agents ( foreign substances, bacteria, viruses … invade the body (eg, the skin will prevent invasive bacteria, stomach acid will kill bacteria through the digestive tract, neutrophils, and large phagocytes “eat” microorganisms and damaged cells). They work on the principle of blocking things that are not of the body, not specific to something specific.
- Make antibodies to fight old disease recurrence: Once the antigen has been detected, immune cells work together to produce antibodies. Once created, antibodies will remain in a person’s body, so if his immune system encounters the antigen again, antibodies are available to do their job. This is also the reason why vaccinations will help prevent certain diseases. An injection will familiarize the body with an antigen in a way that does not make someone infected, but will still allow the body to produce antibodies and will then protect that person from future attacks.
4. Signs weakened immune system
✅ The immune system plays a role in protecting the body from germs and other threats. If the immune system is attacked or weakened, it will affect the health and life of the patient. Immunodeficiency is a condition in which the immune system produces too little antibody, then the body will not be able to resist the disease. There are many possible causes of a weakened immune system: being inactive, unhealthy diet, using alcohol, beer, smoking, obesity, using antibiotics, stress, insomnia … Both external and internal factors can greatly affect the operation of this system. When the immune system is weakened for a long time, it can lead to serious health problems. One of the most common signs of immunodeficiency is a frequent, prolonged, or difficult-to-treat infection. Signs and symptoms will vary depending on the degree of immunodeficiency disorders. Signs that are easy to see and need to think about immunodeficiency :
- Mental weakness: People with weak immunity, always feeling uncomfortable, lacking vitality, stress.
- Easy cold: People who have low resistance, can not resist the penetration of bacteria and viruses, so they are susceptible to illness, typically susceptible to colds, flu.
- Infectious diseases, wounds slow to heal: If accidentally cut, bleeding, not only stop bleeding slower than others, but people with low immune systems are also very susceptible to infections, recovery process slowly.
- Poor digestion: People with poor immunity not only make the digestive process and absorption less than normal people, when eating unsafe food, but it is also easy to vomit and diarrhea.
- Ease tired: People with low resistance often feel tired, all day without energy.
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